Nursing Role to Psychiatric Nursing..
The role of psychiatric nursing began to emerge during this developmental period in the early 1950s. In 1947 Weiss published an article in the American Journal of nursing that reemphasized the shortage of psychiatric nurses and outlined the differences between psychiatric and general duty nurse. She described “attitude therapy” as the nurse’s directed use of attitude that contribute to the patient’s recovery. In implementing this therapy the nurse observes the patient for:
• Observe the changes, whether small or permanent changes that occur on the client
• demonstrates acceptance
• understanding of the patient ,
• promotes the patient’s interest and participation in reality.
More independent functions were described by santos and stainbrook 32 in 1949. They believed that nurses should perform “psychotherapeutic tasks” and should understand concept related to therapy, such as transference.
Compare the roles of psychiatric nurses identified by Hildegard peplau in 1952 with your observation of contemporary psychiatric nursing practice. Finally, two significant developments in psychiatry in the 1950s also affected nursing’s role for years to come. The first was jones’ publication of the therapeutic community: a new treatment method in psychiatry 15 in 1953. It encourage using the patient’s social environment to provide a therapeutic experience. The patient was to be an active participant in care and become involved in the daily problems of the community. All patient were to help solve problems. Plan activities, and develop the necessary rules and regulations. Therapeutic communicaties became the preffered environment for psychiatric patients.
Concultion Mean while, according to Peplau, the nurse's role includes:
- As an educator
- As a leader in a situation that is local, national, and international
- Surrogate parent
- As a counselor
And in addition to the nurse's role is to:
- In cooperation with mental health institution
- Consultation with the welfare foundation
- Provide services to clients outside the clinic
- Actively conducting research
- Help public education
A nurse in a psychiatric setting helps to implement the plan of care, as set forth by the doctor and follows his treatment orders. She'll be helping the patient with everyday care. She will administer medications to the patient as ordered, as needed. As she takes care of the patient, she should be careful to chart every detail of her interactions with and observations of patients, as well as vital medical information, so that the doctor and other staff can make objective decisions concerning that patient's care, having been educated as to his progress, or lack thereof. She will most likely be reporting, in person, on the patient's care to both doctors and other nursing staff, as needed, for the best care possible.
Nursing Care Plan
As the nurse cares for each of her patients, she will examine him and institute a plan of care, coming up with certain nursing diagnoses and care plans for each diagnosis. This helps to form a well-rounded nursing relationship with each patient as she seeks the best for each one. These plans depend on each patient's specific problem and is tailored to each patient's special needs.
It is important for the psychiatric nurse to be aware of her demeanor, or the way she portrays herself. It is important for her to help patients to feel confident in her as their caregiver. She should actively listen to her patients and show that she is listening through maintaining eye contact; this helps with trust. She should also let the patient know that she is approachable. She needs to watch expressions on her face and body language when communicating with patients. On the other hand, it is still important for the nurse to be confident and decisive when it comes to her job in caring for these patients. She needs to be ready to deal with conflict; she can still be assertive without being threatening. There will be times where she will have to bravely stand her ground; however, there will also be times when she can be less serious with the patient and maybe even jovial.
Of course, as a nurse, she should not only fulfill the medical side of the care plan, but she also needs to educate her patients and their families. This education can extend from the most basic care to teaching the patient about the medications they are taking and their condition. They will ask questions and she should make sure she has researched and studied and listened, so that she can give them the correct information. She might even teach a group of patients about certain techniques or subjects within mental health . It all depends on where she works and her job responsibilities.
It is also the nurse's job to stand up for her patients' rights as individuals. If she notices a mistake or something that just doesn't seem right in the patient's treatment plan, she should first study it and then approach the doctor. Many mistakes have been corrected because of an observant nurse. If someone has taken advantage of the patient or even abused the patient in some way, this too needs to be reported. If the patient has any kind of problems, it's the nurse's job to report these to the doctors in charge. The nurse is the one who will see the patient the most often and who will get to know the patient on a daily basis, and she needs to step up and take that advocate role, making sure her patients get the best care possible.
Stuart, G.W.& Sundeen S.J. 1995. Psychiatric Nursing. St. Louis, Missiouri:Mosby Year Book
Stuart Syndeen's, Laraia,. 1998. Principles and Practice Psychiatric Nursing. sixth edition. St. Louis,. Missiouri: Mosby Year Book
Antai Otong, Deborah. 1994. Psychiatric Nursing: Biological and Behavioral Conceps. Philadelpia: WB Saunders Company.
role of psychiatric-mental health nurses in managed care (www.APNA.org)
Role of psychiatric nursing (www.eHOW.com)